A flat (not slick) and non-reflective surface finish for stone panels.
A measure of the percentage of moisture absorbed by a stone. Per ASTM C97, absorption is expressed as the weight of moisture as a percentage of stone weight. Standard absorption for various types of stone panel may be found on this website.
Finish produced by acid applied to the face of a stone panel and used to achieve a texture or finish that is distressed. Chemical treatments are more effective when applied to stone panels of calcareous stones such as marble, limestone or travertine than to siliceous stone types such as granite or sandstone.
Stone veneer secured and supported by attachment of an approved bonding material over an approved backing. StonePly stone panels may be attached by adhering with structural silicones or with epoxy. See the installation section for a description of installation with adhesive.
A volcanic, quartz-based stone containing a variety of colored aggregates and pumice in a quartz matrix. Quarried in Mexico and available in a variety of colors. Adoquin stone panels are not recommended for use exterior use in freeze / thaw environments.
A finely granular variety of gypsum, often white and translucent, may be cut and carved easily with a knife or saw. The term is often incorrectly applied to fine-grained marble. Alabaster is for interior use only. Alabaster is most widely used for lighted or translucent stone surfaces and lighting elements. Alabaster stone panels from StonePly may be bonded to glass, polycarbonate or acrylic.
Basic, as opposed to acidic, substance. Calcareous stones (calcium based stones) such as limestone, marble, travertine, onyx are often referred to as alkaline.
A metal device for securing dimension stone to a structure. For traditional stonework, these include those made of flat stock (stone straps, cramps, dovetails, stone dowel, strap and dowel, and two-way anchors) and round stock (rod cramp, rod anchor, eyebolt and dowel, flat-hood wall tie and dowel, dowel and wire toggle bolts). For StonePly these are replaced with Z clips, concealed screws or adhesive attachment.
The manner by which slabs of stone or stone panels are attached to a structure.
An appearance produced in stone panels by mechanical or chemical means to simulate the naturally occurring effects of the aging process. StonePly antique finish stone panels may be aged with texture, tumbling, with acids or with select stains. StonePly.com/info/finish-options
A stone trim piece or stone panel under a projecting stone top, window stool, sill, etc.
A construction for spanning an opening, consisting of a number of wedge-like stones, bricks, or the like; may vary in shape from flat to semicircular or semi-elliptical to acutely pointed. StonePly stone panel arches may be constructed from a series of stone panels attached to a frame in a prefabricated arch, or may be a site assembled panel.
A sandstone consisting primarily of quartz and feldspar. Also called arkosic sandstone or feldspathic sandstone.
A ridge formed when two stone surface planes meet; for example, column flutes, moldings and raised edges.
A square or rectangular building stone or stone panel typically used as a wall facing in a pattern of varying shapes and sizes.
A flexible and compressible type of closed cell foam polyethylene, butyl rubber, or open-cell or closed-cell polyurethane, generally round in section. It is installed at the bottom or rear of a joint. Often described as a "filler strip." In StonePly installations, the stone panels are erected, then the backer rod is inserted into the open joints, with the depth set with a simple tool. The sealant (generally silicone) is then "gunned" into the joint.
A stone paneling, normally 16-18 inches in height, between the stone countertop and lower cabinet.
A very dense dark grey or black, fine-grained igneous rock commercially known as a granite when fabricated as dimension stone panel. Many of the grey granites and black granites are technically basalts.
The bottom support of a stone wall, or the vertical stone panels that make up the first course above a finished floor.
A term used by stone quarries to refer to:
A horizontal joint between stone panels, usually filled with sealant.
A continuous horizontal course of stones marking a division in the wall plane. If a stone wall, the belt course may be a different stone color, stone texture or design.
A deviation made by a line or surface when not at right angles. In stone, the term bevel usually refers to the slight easing or chamfering of sharp edges of stone panels.
The proper mix of adjacent veneer panels and stone panels, by their predominant color. Much easier to accomplish with StonePly stone panels than with traditional slab stone.
See quarry block. The raw stone cubic piece extracted from the quarry for later slabbing into stone panels.
A machine or equipment used in the stone quarrying process for in-line drilling of small diameter holes used to split out the quarry blocks.
A fine- to medium-grain, metamorphic, quartz based stone of the U.S. Appalachian Plateau and other regions of the world used for building purposes. Formed in the Devonian Period, blue stone panels from the upper beds are green and lilac in color, while the stone panels taken from the middle stone is dark gray and blue.
A free standing stone post or guard to protect a wall corner from damage.
To stick, adhere, connect or fasten.
Overlapping of stone joints in successive courses.
A pairing of stone panels to mirror each other. Book matching usually refers to marble, where one stone slab is cut apart and the two stone panels are installed side by side, with one marble panel's pattern of veining mirroring the other marble panel's pattern. Book matched stone panels are available from StonePly only by special order.
A bending or curving of the wall cladding. Bowing of traditional solid slabs of marble can be a problem due to thermal hysteresis. This problem is avoided by StonePly. The honeycomb supports the marble panels.
Any marble composed of angular fragments embedded in a fine-grained matrix. The word Breccia is from the Italian word for stone fragments, and from the old German word for "break or fracture". Breccias in commercial use are generally sedimentary stones. Commercially, breccias are classified as marbles because they can be polished. The cementing matrix of breccia is normally composed of calcite, silica, iron oxides and other minerals.
Breccia StonePly panels include:
A reddish brown sandstone used a building material.
Rounded edge of a stone member, such as a counter top or stair tread.
Stone with calcium carbonate as a major component, such as marble, travertine, or limestone.
A crystalline variety of calcium carbonate which forms a basic mineral constituent of limestone, marble, and travertine.
A white or milky streak occurring in some varieties of stone in some stone panels. It is a joint plane usually wider than a glass seam which has been naturally re-cemented by deposition of calcite in the crack.
The initial step in the finishing process of a StonePly stone panels. Coarse abrasives pads are mounted to the bottom of rotating wheels that under extreme pressure and rotation speed are applied to the face of the stone. This process grinds the stone to a uniform and consistent thickness within tolerance. This process is applicable only to dense stones that can take a honed or polished finish, such as limestone panels, marble panels, and granite panels. Calibration does not apply to slates, quartzites, and other cleft-face stones, where the precision of the calibration process is not possible. Split faced or cleft faced stones are gauged which is not as precise as calibration.
A covering over a niche or a doorway.
A volcanic, quartz based stone quarried in Mexico, with qualities similar to adoquin, but not as dense. Cantera stone is not recommended for exterior use where freezing temperatures occur. Very soft stone.
The culminating stone at the top of a column or pilaster.
To contour a solid material such as stone by precisely cutting it with a tool.
Filling or closing a joint between stones by sealing with an elastic, adhesive compound.
A hollow opening in joints of stone veneer to allow the passage of air and moisture from inside the wall cavity to the exterior. The vents may be weep holes, plastic tubing, or wicks.
In stone cladding, a cavity wall is a wall built with a continuous air space between the outer masonry, stone slab or stone panel, and the inner wall, typically concrete block or frame construction. Water that penetrates the outer masonry in driving rain runs down through the cavity and is directed out at the bottom through weep holes.
To cut off the edge or corner where two surfaces meet in an external angle, leaving a bevel at the junction.
A rough gang sawn finish produced by shaving with coarse abrasives.
A process of mechanically shaping the stone panel edge, thus giving the stone a rustic, aged appearance.
Non-load-bearing stone veneer used as the stone facing material in wall construction. Stone cladding is designed as an envelope for the building, but not as a structural support. Curtain Walls with StonePly Cladding
An individual grain or fragment of a rock or stone.
The ability of a rock mass or stone to break along or split along a plane or natural surfaces; a surface of natural parting.
Plane or planes along which a stone may likely break or split. Generally refers to slates and other similar stones.
Rough-surfaced stones such as slates that are split or parted along a natural seam are referred to as natural cleft. These types of stones were formed as a result of metamorphic foliation.
A dimension stone larger than a pebble used in paving. A term commonly used to describe paving blocks, usually granite, and generally cut to rectangular shapes.
A range or series of columns supporting an entablature or one side of a roof.
An upright support composed of stone, usually consisting of a stone base, stone shaft, and stone capital.
A construction unit in which stone is to be exposed as a final exterior finish, permanently bonded or jointed to another material.
A coarse-grained sedimentary rock consisting of fragments cemented together, with clast grains larger than 2 mm.
Company or person that performs work and installs fabricated dimension stone.
A joint that allows for dimensional changes of different parts of a structure due to shrinkage, expansion, variations in temperature, or other causes to avoid development of high stresses in the structure.
A flat stone used as a cap or cover on freestanding walls.
Soft, porous limestone composed predominantly of shells and fragments of shells and corals loosely cemented by calcite.
A stone forming a part of a corner or angle in a wall or intersection.
Any projecting ornamental horizontal molding that crowns or finishes the top of a building or wall.
A continuous, horizontal range of stone units the length of a wall.
An appearance achieved by using stone panels of the same or approximately the same height. Horizontal joints run the entire length of the veneered area. Vertical joints in the stone panels are constantly broken, so that no two joints will be over one another.
A curving inward molding, typically found at the sloped or arched junction of a wall and ceiling.
A U-shaped metal anchor used to hold or bind two adjacent units of stone together.
The process of reducing the initial block of stone parallel to the natural bedding plane. The effect is a mottled or cloud like appearance.
Also known as a stylolite, a dark grey or black series of jagged interlocking up-and-down projections occurring in stone. It usually does not affect the structural soundness of the stone.
Dimension units are more than 2 inches thick.
A resilient pad or pillow to absorb or counteract severe stresses placed between adjoining stone units and other materials.
Finished, smooth, dimensioned stone ready to set in place.
One or more coatings of a compound that is impervious to water and usually applied to face of the wall of the drainage cavity behind the stone panels to prevent moisture penetration.
Series of block projections or corbels on an entablature.
Mold course just below the cornice, having on one of its members small, uniformly spaced blocks referred to as "dentils."
A protective layer of interior stone from wall to ceiling.
A natural building stone that has been shaped and finished to specifications.
A crystalline variety of limestone or sedimentary rock resembling marble containing in excess of 40 percent magnesium carbonate as the dolomite molecule.
A cylindrical metal pin or slate fixed into a mortice or sinking in the joints of adjoining stones to prevent movement.
The shaping and squaring, sometimes called scabbing, of stone blocks for storage and shipment.
A recess carved into the underside of projecting stone to divert and prevent water from running down the face of a wall or other surface of which it is a part.
An unhealed fracture or crack in stone which may be a plane of weakness, but does not affect the strength of StonePly panels.
Two finishes on one panel of stone. An example of a dual finish stone panel would be one panel with both a thermal and polished finishes.
The square edge profile normally has softened edges as opposed to sharp square edges for added safety when referring to a slab material.
The underside of a inclined roof that overhangs a wall.
A salt deposit, usually in the form of a whitish, powdery residue, that forms on the surface of stone, brick, concrete or mortar. It is caused by alkalies leached from the masonry and carried to the surface by moisture. Efflorescence generally does not occur with StonePly stone panels as the back panel is water proof.
A drawing of the vertical faces and elements of an interior or exterior structure.
A manmade product containing a blend of natural minerals and manmade agents such as polyester, glass, epoxy. This product can give the appearance of a "stonelike" surface, but it does not possess the characteristics of a natural stone and its range of use is limited.
A horizontal, projecting group of stones carried by columns and made up of an architrave (bottom), frieze (middle), and cornice (top).
The curve or bend resulting from the gradual diminishing of the diameter of the upper two thirds of a column.
A tough flexible resin made by the polymerization of an epoxide; used as an adhesive characterized by toughness, good adhesion, corrosion, chemical resistance, and good dielectric properties.
The process of and setting vertical stone in place.
A decorative stone surface design or pattern created by a variety of methods, most often with abrasive chemicals or sandblasting.
A socket or anchoring device that grips a drilled hole in stone by expanding as the bolt is screwed into it.
A joint between stone entities designed to expand or contract with temperature change or structural movement.
The side in view of any stone panel.
Dimensional stone manufactured and ready for installation.
The visible surface of stone on a structure.
Any relatively narrow, flat, horizontal surface, such as the part covering the joint between the top of a wall and the projecting eaves.
A trade expression used in the fabrication of marble to indicate the filling of natural voids in stone units with cements or synthetic resins and similar materials.
The powder, dust, silt sized or sand sized material resulting from processing or crushing of stone.
Final or polished surface applied to the face of dimension stone during fabrication. The primary types of stone finishes on StonePly stone panels are
Granite Polished, honed, rubbed, abrasive, diamond, sawn, sandblasted, thermal finish (flamed or exfoliated).
Marble Polished, honed, abrasive.
Limestone Polished (for dense limestones only), honed, cleft, rustic.
Slate Honed, abrasive, cleft.
Bluestone Honed, diamond sawn.
Sandstone Abrasive, diamond sawn, cleft.
A narrow opening in the face of stone demonstrating stones natural characteristics; a lineal or non-directional void in the face and crystalline structure of stone that typically is very thin and irregular. See dry seam.
Thin slabs of stone used for paving surfaces such as walks, driveways, terraces, and patios. They are generally fine grained bluestone, other quartz based stone, or slate, but thin slabs of other stones may also be used.
Method of producing a unique pattern on marble panel by cutting quarried marble or stone parallel to the natural bedding plane.
Shallow, concave, parallel, ornamental grooves running vertically on the shaft of a stone column, pilaster, or other surface.
A machine also known as a "frame saw," used to cut stone blocks into slabs of predetermined thickness.
A grinding process to generate stone slabs or stone panels of the same thickness.
In translucent StonePly the glass backing is the layer bonded to onyx, alabaster and certain translucent marbles to allow light to pass through them.
Stone vein fillings of coarsely crystalline calcite, which do not necessarily decrease the strength of the stone structure.
A coarse-grained, hard igneous rock, gray to pink in color, composed of feldspar, quartz, and lesser amounts of dark ferromagnesium materials. Gneiss and black "granites" are similar to true granites in structure and texture, but are composed of different minerals. Commercial and scientific definitions of the granite group are explained in detail in ASTM C119. See granites section of the website.
A metamorphosed or altered basic igneous rock, typically with poorly defined granularity, ranging in color from medium-green or yellowish-green to black. Commercially and per ASTM C119 greenstone may be guide specification. A recommended specification for the finishing and installation of stone. See specifications.
Cutting a stone panel or slab, generally slate, by the guillotine method to produce a jagged, irregular and chipped edge.
A rustic appearance for veneer stone created by chiseling the stone face with a hammer.
The visible surface of the jointed end of any given piece of stone with a gauged dimension not more than the minimum thickness of the material specified. Also known as "return head."
A stone panel finish characterized by a very fine, satin-smooth surface appearance with little or no gloss. Finish Options
A light yellow, honey colored onyx marble.
An aluminum honeycomb reinforcing panel that provides strength and rigidity to the natural stone face panel of StonePly panels.
A trade organization founded for the dissemination of information on limestone standards, recommended practices, grades, colors, finishes, and all technical data required for specifying, detailing, fabricating, and erecting Indiana Limestone. Publishers of the Indiana Limestone Handbook and other technical publications.
Any of the various volcanic rocks or rocks crystallized from molten magma, solidified after the molten state, such as granite.
Administration of a chemical containing stain inhibitors that penetrate below the surface of the stone.
To carve stone or slash inwardly or engrave, as in an inscription.
The gap between installed StonePly stone panels or between a StonePly stone panel and the adjoining material.
Architectural drawing describing dimensions, location, and configuration of stone units and joints as related to structure.
In traditional stone cladding, a kerf is a cut or incision into the edge of a stone slab with a saw blade for insertion of anchors. This is a relatively weak attachment.
The central wedge-shaped stone of an arch, sometimes sculpted or otherwise embellished.
The application of adhesive to two pieces of stone together to produce an edge that can be shaped to create an aesthetic appearance for counter tops.
A horizontal beam or stone place over an opening in a wall that carries the weight of the wall above it.
A situation where one edge of a stone panel is higher than the adjacent stone panels edges, giving the finished surface an asymmetrical appearance.
An international trade association whose membership is composed of producers, fabricators, contractors, exporters, importers, distributors, sales agents, and those who supply products and services to the dimension stone industry and building owners.
Rock altered in appearance, density, crystalline structure, and in some cases, mineral composition, by high temperature or intense pressure, or both. Includes slate derived from shale; quartzite from quartz sandstone; and true marble from limestone.
The junction of two stone units with a 45° angle cut.
Sample wall section of stone panels.
Decorative or adorned stone deviating from a plane surface by projections, curved profiles, recesses or any combination thereof.
A veneering which is generally irregular with undefined pattern. Nearly all the stone used in a mosaic pattern is irregular in shape.
A vertical member, as of stone or wood, that divides a window or other opening into two or more panes. Sometimes, it is only an ornamental overlay.
A product of nature. A stone such as granite, marble, limestone, slate, travertine, or sandstone that is formed by nature, and is not artificial or imitation.
An inner area or part in an interior or exterior wall usually for a statue or an urn, and typically semicircular in design.
A V-shaped indentation made on the edge or head of a stone.
A stone molding with a double curve: concave above, convex below.
A translucent, generally layered, variety of quartz or crystalline form of calcium carbonate. Onyx has colors in pastel shades, particularly yellow, tan, and green. Commercial definitions of onyx are given in ASTM C119 as part of the marble group.
StonePly translucent onyx panels are onyx bonded to glass, polycarbonate or acrylic with a special process of heat and pressure.
A calcite-cemented calcareous stone formed of shells and shell fragments, practically noncrystalline in character that have calcium coatings. . It is found in massive deposits located almost entirely in Lawrence, Monroe, and Owen Counties, Indiana; and in Alabama, Kansas, and Texas. This limestone is characteristically a freestone, without cleavage planes, possessing a remarkable uniformity of composition, texture, and structure. It possesses a high internal elasticity, adapting itself without damage to extreme temperature changes. Indiana
An individual portion, section, or division of fabricated stone veneer.
Applying a thin coat of plaster or mortar to the face of the backup material.
A condition wherein the surface of a material has changed in color or texture due to age or exposure to various elements.
In classical architecture, the support for a column, statue or vase consisting of a base, dado, and cap.
A low gable end of a roof in classical architecture, triangular with a horizontal cornice and raking cornices and the tympanum. It is typically triangular, but can also be curved when applied as a decorative element over windows.
Garden structure formed by two rows of posts or columns with joists and open framing above, often covered by climbing plants and shading a walkway.
A shallow, rectangular, engaged pier or column projecting from a wall, typically decorative.
A stone slab finish that features softly rounded edges projecting a pillowed look.
A rough stone face or edge, shaped with a pitching chisel.
Pertaining to a class of igneous rocks formed beneath the surface of the earth, typically with large crystals owing to the slowness of cooling.
A glossy stone surface finish that exposes the full color and character of the stone. Produced by polishing with successively finer grits of abrasive and special diamond polishing pads. Finish Options
An igneous stone containing distinct and contrasting sizes of coarse and fine-grained crystals used as a decorative building stone or cladding.
A porch or walkway formed by a roof supported with columns, similar to a temple front.
A thin stone panel between urinals or restroom stalls.
Company or person that extracts natural stone from a quarry.
An open excavation or pit where a deposit of stone is extracted from the earth through an open pit or underground mine.
Generally, a rectangular piece of rough stone from a quarry, frequently dressed (scabbed) or wire sawed for shipment.
A silicon dioxide mineral that occurs in colorless and transparent or colored hexagonal crystals or in crystalline masses. One of the hardest and most common minerals, the chief constituent of sand and sandstone, granite, and quartzite.
A stone that is classified as either sedimentary in formation as in sandstone, or metamorphic, as in quartzite. Definitions of the classes of stone which form the quartz based stone group are explained in ASTM C119.
A granular metamorphic quartz based stone formed in exceedingly hard layers. In some deposits, intrusion of minerals during the formation process create unusual coloration.
An external corner formed by two stone panels at an angle, with meeting edges mitered and with visible portions finished.
One of the decorative dressed stones or bricks used at the corner of a building emphasized by size, projection, rustication, or by a different finish. Quoins are usually laid so their faces are alternately large and small.
A deep notch formed in the surface along an edge so as to receive another piece similarly cut.
An angular cut or slot on the face of a stone panel.
A variable, limited, trimmed stone slab with a width and length that is not preset.
A narrow, flat, recessed molding, or a kerf cut to receive and secure flashing.
Stone carving or embossing raised slightly, half or above a background plane, as in a bas-relief.
Inside angle of a stone member with a profile other than a flat plane.
A chemical product, clear to translucent yellow or brown, solid or semisolid, used in some coating processes or treatments.
The right-angle turn of a molding such as wood or stone.
The visible portion of a stone between its outer face and a window or door set into an opening.
The most pronounced appearance of splitting or cleavage of stone. Rift and grain may be obscure, as in some granites, but are important in both quarrying and processing stone.
The height or elevation of a stone, generally used in reference to veneer stone.
Similar to split faced, except that the face of the stone is pitched to a given line and plane, producing a bold presentation rather than the comparatively straight face obtained in split face. Finish Options
A surface finish produced from the gang sawing process.
Exterior masonry cut in large blocks with deeply chamfered joints. Cut stone surfaces can be smooth or rough-textured, and joints and faces can have various treatments.
A segment of stone, usually 12" x 12", showing the general range of color, markings, and finish of a given variety of stone.
A clean-cut edge generally obtained by cutting with a diamond blade, gang saw, or wire saw.
A finish achieved from the process used in producing blocks, slabs, or other units of building stone. It varies in texture from smooth to rough, and is typically named for the type of material used in sawing, e.g. diamond sawn, sand sawn, chat sawn, and shot sawn. Finish Options
A highly foliated, medium-grained metamorphic (recrystallized) rock that are composed predominately of minerals of thin platy or prismatic habits and whose long dimensions are oriented in approximately parallel positions along the planes of foliation. Because of this foliated structure, schists split readily along these planes and so have a pronounced rock cleavage. The more common shists are composed of mica-like minerals (such as chlorite) and generally contain subordinate quartz and/or feldspar of a comparatively fine-grained texture; all gradations exist between schist and gneiss (coarsely foliated feldspathic rocks).
A concave stone molding at or near the base of a column.
An elastic adhesive resilient compound used to seal stone veneer joints.
Stone formed by precipitation from solution. The materials of which they are formed are derived from preexisting rocks or the skeletal remains of sea creatures.
A hydrous magnesium silicate stone material; generally dark green in color with markings of white, light green, or black used for architectural and decorative purposes. Considered commercially as a marble because it can be polished. Definition of serpentine is given in ASTM C119 under the marble group.
An experienced journeyman who installs or erects dimension stone.
The trade of installing or erecting dimension stone units.
The gap from the finished face of a stone unit to the face of the backup material.
A fragment of plastic or other noncorrosive, nonstaining material used to hold joints to size.
Also referred to as a "cutting" or "cut" ticket, it is generally manufactured by the stone fabricator or shop for in-house use and reference. A shop ticket is produced for each differing piece of stone required for a project and is referenced to shop drawings, which are used for communicating intent with parties outside of the fabricating team or shop.
The horizontal stone piece or member below a window or opening in a structure.
A lengthwise-cut of a large quarry block of stone prior to fabrication.
A very fine grained metamorphic stone that splits into thin, smooth-surfaced layers. Characterized by an excellent parallel cleavage, and entirely independent of original bedding, slate may be split easily into relatively thin slabs. See definition of slate in ASTM C119.
A massive variety of talc with a "soapy" or greasy feel, used for hearths, tabletops, chemical-resistant laboratory tops, stove facings, and cladding; known for its stain-proof characteristics. Classified in ASTM C119 as part of the greenstone group.
The underside of any architectural feature, such as an arch, beam, lintel, ceiling, cornice or balcony.
A characteristic of stone used to describe relative freedom from cracks, faults, voids, and similar imperfections found in untreated stone. One of the characteristics encountered in fabrication.
A chip or splinter formed from the main mass of a stone.
A beveled or slanted stone surface, inclined to another surface.
Division of a rock by cleavage.
Stone on which the face has been broken or fragmented to an approximate plane.
Veneer stone that is shaped to one dimension and installed with unbroken vertical and horizontal joints running the entire length and height of the veneered area.
A flat unit of stone panel, generally polished, often referred to as an interior window sill.
A pattern or model for a repetitive marking or stone panel fabricating operation.
Surface or appearance quality of stone independent of color.
A rough stone surface finish that tends to subdue stone color and markings.
A flat strip or segment of stone projecting above the floor between the jambs of a door. Also known as a "saddle."
Dimensional allowance to fabricate a stone product of exact dimensions.
The light-transmitting quality of certain marble, onyx and alabaster varieties containing a crystal structure capable of transmitting light.
A flat stone used as the top walking or stepping surface.
Decorative framing or edging of openings and other features on the interior or exterior of a building, including baseboards, picture rails, cornices, and casings.
A weathered, aging finished produced when the stone is tumbled with sand, pebbles, or steel bearings to wear down and round off the edges.
Cut or shape so as to present an overhanging part.
A piece or fragment of fabricated cubic or thin dimension stone.
A thin stone panel in between urinals.
A layer, seam, or narrow irregular body of mineral material in contrast with the surrounding stone formation.
A cut or slot into quarried stone perpendicular to the natural bedding plane.
An interior or exterior stone wall covering layer or stone panel.
An interior veneer of stone panels, less than full wall height covering the lower portion of an interior wall.
The slope or incline on the top of a stone unit intended to shed water.
A surface treatment conducted by using high pressure water.
Natural alteration to stone by either chemical or mechanical processes due to the action of the atmosphere, soil, surface waters, and other ground waters, or temperature changes.
Openings or passageways for drainage in veneer joints or in the structural components supporting the veneer.
A method of cutting or quarrying stone by passing a twisted, multi strand wire over the stone. The wire may either be immersed in a slurry of abrasive material or be fitted with spaced industrial diamond blocks.
The inner or outer part of a cavity wall that either faces a back-up or is a back-up wall and secured.